In a nutshell: M1 Finance is uniquely positioned amidst a crowded field of investment firms.
Its pie-based investing and dynamic rebalancing is ideal for those who want to build custom portfolios.
In a nutshell: M1 Finance combines automated investment with customizable stock portfolios to give you to best of both worlds.
Its achieves this with its pie-based investing and automatic rebalancing. The result? More investment options and more ease of use.
$0 or $125/year (M1 Plus)
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M1 Finance is the perfect platform for anyone to start investing in the stock market. It allows you to create fully custom stock portfolios. And after the initial setup, you can automate your investment strategy.
Or just pick from one of the portfolios built by M1's team of experts. Whether you have a large amount of cash to invest upfront or you are just starting to save, M1 has something for you.
As long as you have $100, you’re ready to start building your investment portfolio.
Plus, M1’s fractional shares means no investment is out of reach for the average investor. M1 Finance is a commission-free trading platform with automatic rebalancing that makes investing easier for the passive investor.
Indeed, this investment platform makes portfolio management a breeze.
What is M1 Finance?
$0 or $125/year (M1 Plus)
IRA, Brokerage, Trusts, Checking
Passive and Semi-Active Investors
M1 Finance is an investing platform that combines features of various other investing services. The company is based in Chicago, IL and was founded in 2015. Its parent organization is M1 Holdings Inc.
The company’s CEO, Brian Barnes, created M1 Finance because “The financial services industry has lacked any meaningful innovation for far too long, and I decided it was time for change."
Barnes then did exactly that: he created a unique, innovative product. If you aren't sure how to buy stocks, M1 Finance is a great way to start.
M1 Finance automates your investments for a hands-off experience. But it also allows you to hand-pick your investments--something most other robo-advisors don’t offer.
What is similar to other robo-advisors is that it directs users to a questionnaire that helps assess risk.
Other robo-advisors may use this questionnaire simply to determine your stock/bond allocation, but M1 uses it to suggest different portfolios.
Those with lower risk tolerance will have more bonds; higher risk tolerance means more stocks.
These are only suggestions, however. You are still able to create your own custom portfolio from the ground up.
M1 Finance is a member of FINRA. Each investment portfolio is covered for up to $500,000 by the SIPC.
In addition, up to $250,000 cash in M1 Spend is covered by the FDIC. Also, there is no trading commission, much like other popular apps, such as Robinhood.
Still have questions? Check out the company's About page.
M1 Invest: Building Your Portfolio
The main feature that sets M1 Finance apart from other investing platforms is its investing pies.
This is the key feature of its main product, M1 Invest.
These pies are exactly what they sound like: they are made up of individual “slices,” which can be either individual stocks, bonds, or low-cost exchange-traded funds (ETFs).
When you first sign up, you’ll be prompted to make three selections from a list of popular stocks, funds, and expert pies. You can also search for your own if you prefer.
There are thousands of stocks, bonds, and ETFs available on M1's platform, so you should have no problem finding the ones you'd like to buy.
Unfortunately, you aren't able to purchase mutual funds with your investment account.
For more info, have a look at M1's How it Works page.
Funding Your Account
When you run through the setup process, you won’t be required to make an initial deposit. However, in order to actually start investing on the platform, you must deposit at least $100.
Retirement accounts require an initial deposit of $500.
Also note that if you want to enable automatic deposits, there is a minimum of $10 for each deposit.
During the setup process, you will be prompted to add your bank account via Plaid. You’ll see a list of common banks, or you can search for your bank if you don’t see it.
You also have the option to add your bank manually using your routing and account numbers.
M1 Finance Account Types
Generally you will open a taxable brokerage account if you are investing in M1 Finance, but that isn’t the only type of account you’re able to add.
M1 Finance offers the following account types:
- Taxable accounts
- Traditional IRA, SEP IRA, & Roth IRA
- Rollover IRA accounts
- 401k accounts rolled into an IRA
Other types of accounts, such as a 401k, 403b, or 457b are not currently supported.
M1 Finance Features
M1 has a few key features that set it apartment from other investing tools. Where it really shines is its pie-based investing.
What is Pie-Based Investing?
Pie-based investing allows investors to create "pies" where each asset is one slice. Those slices can be stocks, bonds, or ETFs. Each time you invest, M1 will automatically balance each slice to match your target allocation.
You can either build your own pie or use one of M1's expert pies.
The platform has several “expert pies” tailored to various goals. These help you reach various investing goals, including:
- General investing
- Plan for retirement
- Responsible investing
- Income earners
- Hedge fund followers
- Stocks & bonds
- Other strategies
Each expert pie can contain a combination of stocks, ETFs, or bonds.
You can use an expert pie as-is or you can make it a percentage of your custom pie, then add other slices to it. In other words, you can make expert pies part of your own pie.
"Our selection model takes into account the fund's cost, volume, size, and tracking error (how well the fund tracks the benchmark it seeks to replicate)."
M1 uses a quantitative analysis on all traded ETFs to determine the best ones for each pie.
The result is that each pie leaves you with the best combination of diversity and performance.
When you view each expert pie, you can also see a performance chart, letting you know what to expect. Here are a few examples:
General Investing - Aggressive Allocation
Income Earners - Domestic Dividend
Managing Your Portfolio
Your portfolio can contain several pies, allowing you to customize it exactly the way you want.
However, note that if you want to create separate asset allocations, you have to create an entirely new account.
To give an example, let’s say you have a diversified portfolio that is 80% stock funds (ETFs) and 20% bond funds.
But you’d also like to separately invest in a few stocks just for fun. Maybe you buy some Apple shares, some Tesla shares, and some Microsoft shares.
If you want to do this, it’s not possible to add them to your portfolio without changing your 80/20 allocation.
If you were to change that 80/20 allocation, it will affect all of your investments going forward.
Changing your allocation to 70/20/10, where 10 is your “fun money" means any time you invest, 10% of it will go to those individual stocks.
You can't just invest in a few individual stocks here and there.
So if you wanted to create another allocation of a few fun money stocks without affecting your main ETF/bonds portfolio, you have to create a whole new M1 Finance account.
This isn’t terribly inconvenient, but it seems that technology should enable this all within one account.
Like most investing platforms, M1 gives you basic performance indicators for each stock/bond.
This includes several key pieces of information, such as the number of holdings, expense ratio, performance, and the share price.
This screen will also show you the top holdings for funds, and you can add each asset to your watch list if you’d like to monitor its performance before adding it to your portfolio.
Another nice feature of M1 is its built-in rebalancing. Because each slice of your pie has a percentage allocated to it, M1 will distribute each deposit you make so that it fits your allocation.
If one of your assets is outperforming all the others and you make a deposit, that asset will get less of the cash balance than the others so that the others can “catch up.”
What is Automatic Rebalancing?
Automatic rebalancing will rebalance your portfolio as your investments grow. In the case of M1, this is done by allocating money deposited to any assets that are lagging until each one is as close as possible to your target allocation.
Going back to our 80/20 allocation, if your stocks are performing exceptionally well and your portfolio is now 85% stocks, more of your deposited money goes to bonds until your portfolio is back to 80/20.
Having that built-in rebalancing is nice - especially if your pie has dozens of slices.
And when you sell your shares, M1 also does so in a way that helps balance your portfolio.
As you can see in this illustration, money that is withdrawn will not necessarily affect every security.
How money is withdrawn depends upon your current portfolio allocation compared to your target allocation.
You also have the option to rebalance with a single click. To do so, all you have to do is click "rebalance" under your portfolio pie on the dashboard:
Once you click rebalance, M1 will automatically execute trades for you to match your target allocations. Those trades will start at the next trade window, which is 9:30 a.m. Eastern on business days. M1 Plus members have an additional trade window at 3 p.m. Eastern.
You can also find your target allocations by clicking "edit" next to the rebalance button (see snippet above).
M1 Finance doesn’t have tax-loss harvesting like some other platforms, but it does have features built in to help minimize tax implications when selling shares.
In particular, when you sell your shares, the system will sell them in this order:
- Losses that offset future gains
- Lots that result in long-term gains
- Lots that result in short-term gains
While this is not the same as real tax-loss harvesting, it is better than the system selling shares in a totally random order.
M1 has fractional shares, which means you’ll never have cash sitting on the sidelines until you can afford another share. You can purchase pieces of a stock as small as 1/100,000th of a share.
"A fractional share is equity in a security that is less than one full share. M1 splits every share into 1/100,000th of a share so you can trade exact amounts of each based on the targets set in your portfolio."
Say you want to buy a share of Facebook (FB) stock or Amazon (AMZN) stock.
If you only have $100 to invest, on a traditional brokerage, you’d have to save up until you have enough to buy a whole share.
That’s not the case fractional shares. As long as what you want to buy isn’t smaller than 1/100,000th of a share, you’re good to go.
Cash tends to lose purchasing power over time due to inflation, even when put in high-yield savings accounts.
Therefore, being able to invest all of the cash you set aside for that purpose is a big win.
M1 Finance Mobile App
One of M1’s strong points is that it has an excellent mobile app that doesn’t sacrifice much. The experience when moving between the desktop site and the mobile app is seamless.
The app is available on both Android and iPhone.
Indeed, you can do just about anything via that app that you could do on the desktop site.
As you can see, you can purchase new investments, access M1 Spend and M1 Borrow, transfer money, and see investment research.
The app supports biometric (fingerprint) login, and the system has military-grade 4096-bit encryption, keeping your investments safe.
You can also optionally enable two-factor authentication for added security.
M1 Finance Costs & Fees
A basic M1 Invest account is completely free. There are no monthly fees or management fees, no minimum balances, and no trading fees.
Of course, M1 still wants to make money. It does so through fees on its other services, M1 Spend and M1 Borrow.
M1 Spend is M1’s free checking account and can serve as a place to hold cash that you’d like to set aside but aren’t quite ready to invest
The M1 Spend account earns modest interest for M1 Plus members, but none for basic account members.
You will receive a debit card in the mail if you opt in for M1 Spend. If you incur ATM fees, M1 will reimburse you once per month (or up to four reimbursements with M1 Plus).
M1 Borrow is a portfolio line of credit that allows you to borrow up to 35% of your portfolio’s value. The base interest rate for these loans is 3.5%, or 2% for M1 Plus members.
This could make them an attractive borrowing option for anyone making a large purchase. Or you could use it to refinance student loans, pay off credit cards, etc.
In order to borrow against that balance, you must have a brokerage account with a balance of at least $10,000.
On the plus side, there is no payment schedule, and interest accrued may be tax deductible if you itemize your tax deductions.
M1 Plus works as an upgrade to what you get with a free account. For $125/year, it either adds new features or upgrades existing ones.
M1 Plus does provide benefits that may appeal to some, such as cash back and high APY for checking accounts. That said, these benefits can be had elsewhere without an annual fee.
If you’re an active trader, the higher daily ACH limit may seem appealing. In addition, the 2% base rate on M1 borrow could prove useful for some.
All in all, whether the $125 annual fee is worth paying will depend on your spending/borrowing/investing habits.
M1 Finance Support
For the most part, M1 doesn't have the most comprehensive support. This is to be expected, especially for free users.
Still, it's tough to complain too much given that you can use M1 Invest without paying any fees.
If you do have an issue and need help, there is a chat box at the bottom of the website that is available at any time.
M1 Finance vs. Betterment
When looking at M1 Finance vs. Betterment, what you should know is that both are excellent platforms, albeit for different reasons.
M1 Finance is great for its pie-based investing, which makes it easy to create custom portfolios.
You have the option to use M1 Finance completely for free, unless you opt for M1 Plus for some additional features.
Unlike Betterment, M1 Finance doesn't have tax-loss harvesting. It does, however, allow you to rebalance your portfolio with one click.
Betterment, on the other hand, has excellent diversification, but it doesn't allow you to customize your portfolio (beyond stocks vs. bond allocation).
As Betterment is strictly a robo-advisor, it doesn't have a free option. Still, the fee isn't too bad for those who want a truly hands-off experience.
M1 Finance vs. Vanguard
In some ways, M1 Finance and Vanguard are similar. In other ways - not so much.
M1 Finance is a DIY investing solution, like Vanguard. However, it has a more modern approach to investing and makes things simpler with its investment pies.
It also has no minimum balance with fractional shares. Although a Vanguard brokerage account has no minimum balance, several of its funds do have a minimum investment.
Plus, Vanguard doesn't offer fractional shares with its brokerage accounts, unlike M1 Finance.
Vanguard is one of the original DIY investment tools. In fact, Jack Bogle, the company's founder, created the first index fund.
These days, it doesn't have quite the ease of use of more modern tools like M1 Finance. Nevertheless, its fees remain quite low.
In addition, it now has a robo-advisor called Vanguard Digital Services. At 0.15%, its management fee is actually lower than other popular robo-advisors such as Betterment.
So, while Vanguard is a bit antiquated in some ways, it has recently introduced some new products that could be attractive to new investors.
» Want to see how M1 compares to its competitors? Check out our list of the best robo-advisors.
M1 Finance FAQ
As M1 Finance is still relatively new compared to names like Fidelity and Vanguard, I'd like to address questions you may have about the platform.
Is M1 Finance Trustworthy/Legit?
Yes, M1 Finance is a trustworthy, legitimate company. M1 is a member of FINRA, and investments and cash are insured by the SIPC and FDIC, respectively.
Despite the fact that M1 Finance is relatively new, there is little reason to have doubts about the company.
In addition, M1 is an American company based in downtown Chicago, IL--not some obscure foreign country.
You can learn more about M1 Finance on the company's About page.
Is M1 Finance Good for Beginners?
M1 Finance can be good for beginners. It offers a variety of ETFs and pre-built expert pies, meaning there's no need for you to sift through thousands of possible investments.
That being said, it's likely that intermediate to advanced investors will appreciate the platform more. That's because it allows for almost unlimited flexibility, and you still have to select your own investments.
Beginner investors may prefer a platform like Betterment or Wealthfront, which select all your investments for you.
How Does M1 Finance Make Money?
M1 Finance makes money from fees it charges for M1 Plus, M1 Borrow, and on interest earned from lending securities.
That said, a basic M1 Invest account is completely free.
Is M1 Finance Right For You?
Overall, M1 Finance is an excellent investing platform with very minimal fees.
It simplifies the investing process and makes it easy for the passive investor to maintain a healthy, balanced portfolio and personal finances through powerful automation.
The reasons M1 is best for a passive investment strategy is that it only has one trading window (9 a.m. central). That means trades are only executed during this time.
If you transfer funds into your account after that time (or on the weekends), they won’t be invested until 9 a.m. the next business day.
If you pay for M1 Plus, you'll get two trade windows, but that still isn't nearly enough for an active trader.
That said, if you’re looking for a simple solution that will demystify investing and create a diversified portfolio that helps you grow your investments with minimal intervention, M1 is for you.
In fact, if you enable automatic deposits, your portfolio will require virtually no ongoing maintenance. That is all thanks to M1’s automatic rebalancing.
It’s always good to check it from time to time, but checking it every day - or even every month - might be unnecessary.
Regardless of your goals, M1 Finance is a great platform for all kinds of investors, and one worth checking out for anyone who wants to start investing.